The Formalities Necessary to Form a Limited Company

Posted by Vipul Mistry Sunday, December 23, 2007 0 comments
There are certain dos and don'ts attached to the formation of a limited company. The Companies House in the UK looks after the matter of company formation. In order to form a limited company in the UK, one needs to provide the concerned authority (in this case it is the Companies House) with necessary information and documents. These are clearly dictated in the booklets published by the House, both in online and print versions. There are basically three types of limited companies in the UK: private company limited by shares, private company limited by guarantee and public limited company. The first one is similar to a private limited company. The second type of company does not have share capital; rather, it is guaranteed by its members. The members agree to pay a fixed amount in the event of the company's liquidation. One can form a limited company in any of these ways. In a public limited company, the shareholders would only be liable to pay the amount that remains unpaid on the shares. This amount is usually zero as shares are issued fully paid. The shareholders in the limited companies always have a limited liability. In order to form a limited company in the UK, one needs to register it with the Companies House. The registered office can be in England and Wales, Scotland and North Ireland. The registered office and all the other things involved in company formation process in the UK have some formalities attached to them. The very naming of a limited company has a legal formality attached to it. If you are to form a limited companyin the UK, you have to include the word 'limited' in its name. The contracted form of the word, 'ltd' will also do. This way, there are some other dos and don'ts to be taken care of while forming a limited company in the United Kingdom.

About the Author: lThe Author is an experienced writer presently writing on topic like offshore company formation and company formation agent to make business services successful in the UK.

Long queues in Gujarat as BJP, Congress claim victory

Posted by Vipul Mistry Sunday, December 16, 2007 0 comments
Hundreds of thousands of men and women stood in long queues to vote in the final phase of Gujarat's assembly elections Sunday as both the ruling Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and the Congress claimed victories.

After a poor start to polling due to cold winds, voter turnout went up rapidly across Gujarat's northern and central areas as the day progressed in a do-or-die battle involving 599 candidates in 95 constituencies.

In some places, however, voters gathered at polling centres even before they opened at 8 am.

A total of 18.7 million people are eligible to vote on Sunday, and cities and towns in both regions witnessed maximum enthusiasm to pick a new assembly.

A confident and combative Chief Minister Narendra Modi claimed that the BJP would sweep the elections to retain power in a state whose electoral outcome is widely expected to have an impact on national politics.

BJP leader and prime ministerial candidate L.K Advani also made a similar assertion.

After casting his vote in Ranip area of Sarkhej constituency, Modi flashed a V sign to his cheering supporters. "The BJP is fighting for the future of Gujarat. I am sure we will get an unprecedented majority," he said.

A large crowd of Modi fans who had been waiting for the chief minister went wild as he reached the polling booth, screaming in unison: "Modi! Modi!"

Modi's cabinet colleague Amit Shah is contesting from Sarkhej, the biggest seat in size and number of voters.

The chief minister, who has turned the Gujarat ballot as a Modi-versus-Congress battle, himself is pitted against central minister Dinsha Patel in the adjoining constituency of Maninagar in Ahmedabad.

Shortly before Modi spoke, Advani voted in Shahpur constituency of Ahmedabad amid chaos after an electronic voting machine (EVM) at the polling booth failed to function.

Advani told reporters later: "The BJP is going to win in both Gujarat and Himachal Pradesh. And the results are going to decide the timing of the mid-term (parliamentary) elections."

The Congress made similar claims.

State Congress president Bharatsinh Solanki said: "There is a wave for change. This time the situation will be a reverse of what it was in 2002."

But Advani insisted that there was no anti-incumbency. "The BJP will form the government in both Gujarat and Himachal Pradesh," he said, referring to the two states going to the polls this month.

Several heavyweights from the BJP, which has ruled Gujarat for almost a decade barring a short break, and the Congress, which is desperate to oust the BJP, are in the fray.

Issues of security and terrorism dominated the acrimonious campaign in the second round. Developmental issues, with which the campaign began in the state, took a back seat.

Among the other high profile contenders on Sunday are cabinet ministers Anandiben Patel, Amit Shah, Prabhatsinh Chauhan and Ashok Bhatt. Congress veteran Narhari Amin is also in the fray.

Sunday began with a major embarrassment for the BJP when one of its candidates was arrested within an hour.

Police took into custody Jayanti Rathwa, candidate from Pavi Jetpur constituency of central Gujarat. He was charged with illegal possession of weapons, which were seized from three vehicles driven by his supporters.

Also, the Election Commission has charged Gujarat Education Minister Anandiben Patel with violation of poll conduct after she allegedly distributed saris among voters in her Patan constituency in the northern region.

The EVMs did not function well in more than one place. In some seats, voters complained that their names were not in the Election Commission list though they possessed the relevant identity cards.

Naturally, arguments erupted in several places between angry voters and exasperated officials.

In 2002, the BJP swept central Gujarat and dominated the northern region of the state in the aftermath of communal violence. The Congress is making a determined bid to bounce back to power.

The first phase of the Gujarat assembly election took place December 11. The votes will be counted December 23.

Scientists Cure Mice Of Sickle Cell Using Stem Cell Technique

Posted by Vipul Mistry Sunday, December 9, 2007 0 comments

Using a recently developed technique for turning skin cells into stem cells, scientists have cured mice of sickle cell anemia -- the first direct proof that the easily obtained cells can reverse an inherited, potentially fatal disease.

Researchers said the work, published in yesterday's online edition of the journal Science, points to a promising future for the novel cells. Known as iPS cells, they have been touted by President Bush and some scientists as a possible substitute for embryonic stem cells, which have been mired for years in political controversy.

But researchers also cautioned that aspects of the new approach will have to be changed before it can be tried in human patients. Most important, the technique depends on the use of gene-altered viruses that have the potential to trigger tumor growth.

"The big issue is how to replace these viruses," said Rudolf Jaenisch of the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research in Cambridge, Mass., who led the new work with co-worker Jacob Hanna and Tim M. Townes of the University of Alabama Schools of Medicine and Dentistry in Birmingham.

"Induced pluripotent stem," or iPS, cells, are virtually identical to embryonic stem cells. They can morph into all of the more than 200 cell types in the body but are derived from skin, not from embryos. Mouse iPS cells were first derived earlier this year, and scientists reported last month to great fanfare that they had created similar cells from human skin.

The new experiment started with the removal of a few skin cells from the tail tips of mice sick with sickle cell anemia, which can cause painful circulatory problems, kidney failure and strokes.

The researchers converted those skin cells into iPS cells by infecting them with viruses engineered to change the cells' gene activity so they would resemble embryonic cells.

Using DNA splicing techniques in those cells, the researchers then snipped out the small mutated stretches of DNA that cause sickle cell disease and filled those gaps with bits of DNA bearing the proper genetic code.

Next, the researchers treated the corrected iPS cells with another kind of virus -- this time one designed to induce a genetic change that encouraged the cells to mature into bone marrow cells.

Finally, each mouse that gave up a few skin cells at the beginning of the experiment was given an infusion with the corrected marrow cells created from its own skin cells. Those cells set up permanent residence in the animals' bones and began producing blood cells -- the major function of marrow cells -- and releasing them by the millions into the circulatory system.

But now the blood cells being produced were free of the sickle cell mutation.

"All the parameters we can measure are now normal," Jaenisch said. "The mice are cured."

People with sickle cell disease can be cured with bone marrow transplants, but only about 20 percent of patients have a healthy sibling whose tissue type is a close enough match to avoid immunological complications, Townes said. Even in those cases, about 20 percent of the transplants fail, and sometimes they result in a potentially deadly reaction called graft-vs.-host disease.

Those problems do not arise with iPS cell transplants because the cells are genetically identical to the animals getting them.

"These are not just matched, they're identical," Townes said.

The mice were given low doses of radiation just before the transplants to kill some of their existing bone marrow cells and to make room for the newly injected, corrected ones. Tests indicate that about 80 percent of each animals' marrow is now made up of the new cells. And four months after treatment, no tumors have been seen.

Even a 20 percent marrow substitution can be therapeutic in people, Townes said, in part because healthy red blood cells live for about four months in the circulatory system, while their diseased counterparts last only 40 days.

"I think it is a really exciting proof-of-principle that clinical applications of iPS cells are technically feasible," said George Q. Daley, a stem cell researcher at Children's Hospital Boston. "There will be lots of unanticipated setbacks before we end up in the clinic, but this work suggests that we will ultimately get there."

Jaenisch said the success with iPS cells does not mean that research on human embryonic stem cells can be dropped, as some opponents of the work have asserted.

"All the progress in this field was only possible because we had embryonic stem cells to work with first," Jaenisch said. "We need to make more ES cells and really define which are going to be the best ones for different applications."